The rule of poker is very ancient. One of its ancestral games-primero (Spain), primiera (Italy), la prime (France)-appears in literature at least as early as 1526. In this game each player had three cards, and the counting combinations were three of a kind, a pair, and a flux (flush; three cards of the same suit). In later developments certain cards had special value, equivalent to wild cards in modern poker. By about 1700 the betting and bluffing aspects had produced the games of brag in England (one of four card games about pkv game which Edmond Hoyle wrote) and pochen (its name meaning “to bluff”) in Germany. From the latter the French developed a similar game called poque, first played in French America in 1803, when the Louisiana Purchase made New Orleans and its environs territories of the United States. During the next 20 years, English-speaking settlers in the Louisiana Territory adopted the game, Anglicized its name to poker, and established the essential features of the modern game.
The earliest known reference to poker in American literature occurs in the memoirs (1829) of Joe Cowell, a touring English actor. From his description it is clear that the original American game was played with a pack of cards that included five cards for each player; all the cards were dealt, and the players bet on who had the best five-card combination. So played, poker is virtually indistinguishable from an older Persian game called as nas, a four-hand game played with a 20-card pack, five cards dealt to each player. This coincidence led some students of games to call poker a derivative of as nas, but this theory has been discredited.